This collection dates from Prehistory to Post-Medieval periods with material from 61 sites in the West Midlands area. It includes unique finds and in many cases excavation records. Those sites are of a huge range, from fortifications to urban sites, with Mesolithic period flint tools to Roman tiles and Medieval metalwork. This collection was acquired largely as a result of active fieldwork by both museum staff and those from external organisations since the 1950s.
- the Anglo-Saxon Staffordshire hoard, consisting of over 3,500 artefacts and fragments dating from the 7th century, made from gold, silver and copper alloy, decorated with garnet and fine filigree
- a 500,000 year old hand axe from Saltley, representing the earliest Palaeolithic artefact from the Midlands region
- a 14th century communion cruet from Weoley Castle
- collections from the east European early Neolithic settlement at Vinca and the early Bronze Age cemetery site of Vounous in Cyprus.